Azerbaijan is one of the most ancient states of civilization, a country with a rich and ancient history, on the territory of which during the centuries were gathered the heritage for the treasury of world culture. Opening of Azykh cave, one of the first places of  human habitation, and  objects of the Stone Age prove that Azerbaijan entered the zone of anthropoids living. The process of justification of tribes continued here since III millennium to I century BC. The first political formation appeared on the territory of Azerbaijan in the IX century BC - Manna state , with high economic and cultural level, residents of which believed in natural phenomena, Sun and Moon.

At the beginning of the VI century BC Manna was conquered by the Medes and became the official religion of Zoroastrianism, the spread of which was connected with a lot of oil and gas - natural sources of fire. A huge role in the ancient history of Azerbaijan states played Atropatena and Caucasian Albania. The name Atropatena associated with the name of its ruler - Atropat, was later transformed to Azerbaijan. Especially in Atropatena began the process of formation of Azerbaijani nation. In the III-V centuries in Azerbaijan was spread Christianity. With the advent of the Christian churches in Transcaucasia, secular and spiritual life received a new impetus for development. At the beginning of V century was made Albanian alphabet, which gave impetus to the development of education. Many of the unique monuments of culture, literature and architecture of that period preserved until today.

By the beginning of the VIII century Azerbaijan was conquered by the Arabs and was a part of the Arab caliphate under the name Vilayat Arran. During this period, Islam became the leading religion in Azerbaijan, creating new traditions and culture. Azerbaijanis as other nations adopted Islam were named Muslims and participated in the development of Islamic culture. During this period, Azerbaijan has joined the world's cultural heritage, giving the world many brilliant scientists, poets and architects. In the middle ages, in different periods, in the territory of Azerbaijan allocated state Karagoyunlu, Akgoyunly and Safavid state. Trade routes, known as the "Silk Road" between Europe and Asia involved Azerbaijan, which lies at their intersection, in the sphere of interests of other countries. Nevertheless, in the XVIII century on the territory of Azerbaijan were independent states - khanates. However, the differences between Russia, Turkey and Iran which deepened in XVIII-XIX centuries turned Azerbaijan into an arena of war. According to Turkmenchay agreement in 1828 Russia and Iran divided Azerbaijan between each other: northern Azerbaijan went to Russia, southern part to Iran.

Photo: step by step of Silk Away

The XX century entered the history of Azerbaijan as a period of radical changes in the social, economic, political and cultural life. In Azerbaijan had rapidly been developing a number of industries. Baku is turning into a world center of oil production and makes more than half of the world and 95% of Russian oil production. Changing cultural and spiritual life – the various branches of science are developing, newspapers and magazines are printed in large editions, formed political parties, public organizations, developing democratic ideas in society, aimed at promoting the growth of national consciousness and liberal attitudes. In February 1917, after the fall of the Tsarist Russia, created conditions for the development of national reforms. May 28, 1918 was the formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, which existed for 23 months ended its existence in April 1920 - with the arrival in Baku XI Red Army of Soviet Russia. Azerbaijan is becoming a part of the USSR - the socialist republic with state attributes: Constitution, flag, anthem, coat of arms.

    In 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan restored its independence again. Constitution of independent Azerbaijan was adopted in November 12, 1995. By this event began a new era of development of the Azerbaijani people and statehood - epoch of democracy and progress.

Today, Azerbaijan is a secular democratic state, with high rates of economic growth, which plays a stabilizing role in the region.

Photo: Heydar Aliyev Center