Azerbaijan.

Origin of name.

The etymology of the word "Azerbaijan" is of an ancient origin. It is known that most of the population living in the country before our era were fire worshippers. Thus, according to one version, the name comes from the word "Azer" which can be translated as "fire", "flame". According to another version, the name of the country comes from a combination of the words "az" and "er", which were used in ancient times on the territory of Azerbaijan. In Turkic languages, the word "al" has the meaning as "good hope" or "good fate" and "er" - "(brave) man", "a brave boy", "fire keeper".

Capital.

The capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan  is Baku city.

National currency.

The official currency of the Republic of Azerbaijan - manat equal to 100 kopecks. Currency code - AZN. Azerbaijani manat denomination was subjected twice - in 1992 and 2006.

Currently in Azerbaijan there are 6 types of coins and 6 types of  banknotes:

- Coin: 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50 kopecks (no date)

- Notes: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 AZN

Design of Azerbaijani manat was developed by the Austrian designer Robert Kalina currency, which, incidentally, has developed modern design of the euro banknotes.

Some bank notes commissioned by the National Bank of Azerbaijan publishes the British company De La Rue, one of the world's largest securities market.

Azerbaijani language.

Azerbaijani language - a means of daily communication and an official state language of the population of the Azerbaijan Republic. In addition, it is also the mother language of 20 million Azerbaijanis living in Iran, as well as in Russia, the USA, Turkey and Western Europe, where there are several million of Azerbaijanis. Despite the fact that for centuries they were residents of different countries, and today no matter in which country they live, Azerbaijanis freely understand each other. Thus, we can conclude that the world is now home to more than 30 million people speak the Azerbaijani language.

Azerbaijani language belongs to the Turkic group of Turkic language family, and together with Turkish, Turkmen and Gagauz languages, forms the southwestern group of Turkic languages.

The origin of the Azerbaijani Turkic language and speaking in the language of the people was a long process that lasted for several centuries. As the increase in the ethnic composition of the population of Turkic tribes, as well as their economic, political and cultural influence also expanded the range of activities of language and, thus, different ethnic groups, which managed to maintain to this day some of their ethnic and anthropological features, merged as a single people, having a common cultural and moral and religious unity.

Azerbaijani language is one of the oldest literary languages, the history of which begins with the 13th century.

Azerbaijani literary language during his nearly 800-year development covers two main periods. Called the ancient, the first period covers the 13 - 18th century, and the second period, called new, began in the 18th century and continues till our days.

Population.

According to the State Statistical Office of the Republic of Azerbaijan's population at the beginning of 2010 amounted to 9 million people. National composition of the population of Azerbaijan - Azeri (90.6%), Lezgins (2.2%), Russian (1.8%), Talysh (0.9%), the Avars (0.5%), Georgians (0.2 %), Jews (0.09%) and others (1%).

During the period from 1987 to 1994,  200 thousand refugees from Armenia arrived in Azerbaijan, of which 170 thousand Azerbaijanis and 20 thousand Kurds and other nationalities. In Azerbaijan, refugees in the amount of slightly more than 10% of the total percentage of the population. Subsequently, the country has taken about 10 thousand Chechen refugees. There is also home to a small group of refugees from Afghanistan. According to studies conducted in 2006, in Azerbaijan 51.6% of the population are urban dwellers and 48.4% live in rural areas. Currently, the 1000 men accounts for 1032 women. The average age of the population in the country is 31 years, average life expectancy - 72.4 years. For men, the figure is 69.9 years, for women - 75.2 years.

Religion.

According to the Constitution, Azerbaijan - it is a secular state and religion is separated from the state and is represented by a set of different faiths and religions, common among ethnic groups in the country and living on the territory of Azerbaijan. Most of the population of Azerbaijan is Muslim Shiite. The Muslims here are mostly supporters of dzhafarid school (Madhab) in Shiism. In addition, the country is also well represented of other currents of Islam.

There are synagogues; Judaic communities here are some of the most active and influential religious organizations in Azerbaijan. Krasnaya Sloboda, located in Guba region of Azerbaijan, is the only place of compact residence of Jews in the former Soviet Union.

Today in the country there are 6 Orthodox churches, three of which are located in Baku.

Catholicism began to spread in Azerbaijan in the early 14th century. In May 2002, in the life of the Catholic Church in Azerbaijan was a significant event - Baku on an official visit to Pope John Paul II.

 In Azerbaijan, there are 25 local communities of Evangelical Christians-Baptists, and Zoroastrian communities.

Photo: the flag of Azerbaijan